Relation to infrastructure

Shortwave fade out

Large solar flare may trigger the Dellinger phenomenon. If it occurs, it may cause the shortwave communication failure or trouble of the radio broadcast. The risk depends on the level of following items.

Reroute of airline flights

Disturbances in space weather can affect the aircraft’s communication with ground control, positioning errors, and passenger exposure. If any level of following items increases, the aircraft's route may be changed depending on the decision of each airline.

Radiation exposure to astronauts

If the Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) increase, astronauts may be exposed to radiation. If any level of following items increases, extra vehicular activity might be suspended to prevent crew exposure.

Malfunction of artificial satellites

By the effects of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) and magnetosphere plasma particles, the risk of the malfunction should be concerned when any level of following items increases.

Appearance of aurorae

Aurora becomes active when the space environment is stormy. If the amplitude of geomagnetic disturbance is very high, you may see red aurora even in Japan.

Degradation of GPS accuracy

The positioning accuracy calculated from the delayed arrival time of radio wave can be affected by the disturbance of Ionosphere. The risk of the error should be concerned when any level of following items increases.

Trouble of electrical transmission facilities

A large magnetic field disturbance causes an induced current. It may affect a failure in the electrical transmission facility. It may result in a blackout of the power supply. If the amplitude of geomagnetic disturbance is very high, the trouble should be seriously concerned.

Social impacts for infrastructure and relative phenomena
Social impacts Relative phenomena
Solar Magnetosphere Ionosphere
Radio communication Solar flare Solar proton Geomagnetic disturbance Radiation belt electrons Ionospheric storm Dellinger phenomenon Sporadic E-layer
Aviation Solar flare Solar proton Geomagnetic disturbance Radiation belt electrons Ionospheric storm Dellinger phenomenon Sporadic E-layer
Radiation exposure Solar flare Solar proton Geomagnetic disturbance Radiation belt electrons Ionospheric storm Dellinger phenomenon Sporadic E-layer
Artificial satellites Solar flare Solar proton Geomagnetic disturbance Radiation belt electrons Ionospheric storm Dellinger phenomenon Sporadic E-layer
Aurora Solar flare Solar proton Geomagnetic disturbance Radiation belt electrons Ionospheric storm Dellinger phenomenon Sporadic E-layer
GPS Solar flare Solar proton Geomagnetic disturbance Radiation belt electrons Ionospheric storm Dellinger phenomenon Sporadic E-layer
Power grid Solar flare Solar proton Geomagnetic disturbance Radiation belt electrons Ionospheric storm Dellinger phenomenon Sporadic E-layer